Talking Drums

The West African News Magazine

People, Places and Events


Doe sworn in as President

Gen. Samuel K. Doe was, on January 6, sworn in as the 20th President of the Republic of Liberia by Chief Justice Emmanuel N. Gbalazeh at the Centennial Memorial Pavilion on Ashmun Street in Monrovia. Gen. Doe becomes the first President of the Second Republic following five years of military government. President Doe, whose National Democratic Party of Liberia (NDPL) won the October 15 elections last year, will serve a six year term of office.

Chief Justice Gbalazeh said the administra- tion of the oath of office to Gen. Doe marks an end to military rule in Liberia and ushers in a civilian and constitutional government. Following the administration of the oath of office, President Doe then swore in Dr Harry F. Moniba as Vice President for the Second Republic.

Also at the ceremony, Dr Doe swore in elected legislators of the Second Republic from the various political sub-divisions of the country.

The inaugural programme was attended by an array of dignitaries and representatives of foreign governments including the Second Vice President of Sierra Leone, Mr A.B. Kamara, delegations from the United States, Asia, Europe and African countries, as well as members of the diplomatic corps, government officials, chiefs, a cross-section of the citizenry and foreign residents in the country.

Reconciliation, reconstruction and rehabilitation will be the "major objective" of the Second Republic, President Samuel Kanyon Doe told the nation in his inaugural message.

He called on the Liberian people "to put aside their differences whatever, and submerge their partisan beliefs under that supreme party the Republic of Liberia - in order to work towards that objective".

"Inspite of political affiliation, social or economic background, age or level of education, let us close ranks, and fight only when external aggression engulfs us", President Doe urged his fellow citizens. He reminded Liberians that no nation has ever prospered in disorder, but only "when peace, harmony and goodwill reigned supreme"

He emphasised that the new socio-political order which the Liberian people unfolded called for a "new character of Liberians". President Doe also said the new Republic would require "men and women of great strength, great integrity and great moral values".

Dr Doe said "as first President of the Second Republic I have a vision of the new Republic: I see it as a place free from conflicts among tribes...and a place where honesty and integrity are of the highest standards".

President Doe added that he sees the new Republic free of lies, gossips and make beliefs, "which", he said, "often tend to destroy us". He urged Liberians to commence this era with "determination, courage and strength," noting that the "collective will" of all was necessary to build a great nation. He said this "new beginning must be characterised by a new national spirit of unity and trust".

He asked his political opponents to forget the past and join the new administration in its endeavour to build a "strong and progressive" nation.

"I promise to be a good shepherd and you can help to make me a good leader of my flock", the Liberian leader told Liberians.

Delegations to inauguration

Delegations representing foreign governments at the inauguration of Liberia's 20th President gathered at the Executive Mansion after the swearing in ceremony to congratulate President and Mrs Samuel K. Doe and Vice President and Mrs Harry F. Moniba.

The delegations included the second Vice President of Sierra Leone, Mr A.A. Kamara, the US delegation, the Zairean special envoy, the Guinean special envoy, the Foreign Minister of Togo, the special envoy of the President of Senegal and the Korean delegation.

Also present at the Executive Mansion to congratulate the President and Vice President were the members of the diplomatic corps, accredited to Liberia, special guests of the LAMCO/JV Operating Company, members of the Liberian legislature, the judiciary and the cabinet.

Others included the Chairman and Commissioner of Secom, officials of the National Democratic Party of Liberia, the Chairman of the Liberia Action Party and the Chairman of the Unity Party, among others.

Later, President Doe proposed a toast to the peace and stability of the Liberian nation and people as well as the new civilian government.

Nineteen released

Nineteen persons who were arrested and detained following the November 12 abortive invasion, were ordered released by the newly inaugurated President of Liberia, Dr Samuel K. Doe.

According to the Liberia Broadcasting System (LBS), those ordered released by President Doe include: Dr Byron Tarr, Secretary General of the opposition Liberia Action Party, the party's executive members Harry Greaves Sr and David Farhat.

Also released were Mr Peter B. Jallah, Treasurer of the Unity Party, who was also a senatorial candidate for Montserrado County in the October 15 general elections, Isaac Bantu, a stringer for the British Broadcasting Corporation, and the President and Publisher of the Independent Footprints newspaper, Mr Momolu V. Sackor Sirleaf, among others.

Dr Doe said the release of the 19 persons was based on preliminary investigations which proved that there was no need to keep them in detention. He said those who have been charged and those still being investigated would "benefit from the due process of law", the radio said.

Warning to absentee senators-elect

The Special Election Commission, Secom, will take appropriate action against all legislators elect who fail to take up their seats within 30 days beginning January 6, according to Secom chairman, Emmett Harmon.

Ambassador Harmon, who made the dis- closure during a press conference at Secom headquarters, said six legislators-elect from the Liberia Action Party (LAP) and the Liberian Unification Party have remained silent or absconded from the country following the November 12 incident. He, however, dis- closed that all legislators from the Unity Party of Dr Edward Kessely have been accredited and have taken their respective seats.

Asked about the fate of LAP senator-elect Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf, presently detained in connection with the November 12 invasion, Chairman Harmon said the legislature will decide on what to do with her. He explained that the decision of Secom to take appropriate action against legislators who fail to take their seats was in keeping with Decree No 75 and the election laws of Liberia.

Talks on Israeli security aid

The Israeli Chief of Border patrol left on December 31 at the end of a five day working visit to Liberia. During his visit, Maj-Gen. Sha'ad met with several high-ranking Liberian security officials, including Defence Minister Gray D. Allison, Justice Minister Jenkins Scott, Immigration Commissioner Sharman Edwin Teh, Police Director Wilfried Clark and the Chairman of the Joint Security Forces. Speaking to newsmen at the police headquarters on capitol hill shortly before his departure, Maj-Gen. Sha'ad said he was im- pressed with discussions held with his counterparts. He described his visit as successful and rewarding and expressed optimism that as a result of his visit, the Israeli government will assist in providing additional facilities at the National Police Training Academy in Paynesville. In separate remarks, Immigration Commissioner Teh and Police Director Clark thanked the General for the visit and said they were looking forward to assistance from the Israeli government.

Names of those wanted

Justice Minister Jenkins Scott says 12 persons including seven former government officials are wanted by the government of Liberia for their alleged involvement in the November 12 abortive coup. He told former Foreign Minister H. Boimah Fahnbulleh; former LEC (Liberian Electricity Corporation) managing director Harry Yuan; former New Liberian' editor-in-chief Tom Kamara; former emigration bureau commissioner Tony King; former Senator of Sinoe County Taylor Major; former general manager of the Roberts international airport Archie Williams; and former Labour Minister Moses Doupu, were wanted by the board of inquiry investigating individuals involved in the November 12 coup. Others wanted are Mr Charles Kamara, Joe Wallie of the University of Liberia, Mr Joseph Lea, Mr Wreh Dollie; and Cooper Teah.


Beneficiaries from clemency measures

The Chairman of the National Council of Revolution (CNR) Captain Sankara has signed several decrees to enable many prisoners to regain their freedom or to have their prison terms reduced by some months and in other cases some years.

The sentence of house arrest on the following has been lifted: Christophe Klevasseur, former Air Force chief and Jean Bado, a former minister.

The following detained persons have also had their sentence commuted to house arrest: Ouedraogo Kango Gerard, former National Assembly Speaker, Saye Zerbo, former head of state and Ouedraogo Mahamoudou, major in the army.

ICJ to rule on dispute

Burkina Faso has asked the International Court of Justice at The Hague to spell out some "temporary measures" in the conflict between it and Mali, envisaging notably the withdrawal of each other's troops from the common border of the two countries. In its latest request Burkina Faso demands the Court "to order the withdrawal of each other's troops from the border and refrain from any acts that could compromise the implementation of the order that the court is preparing to give".

No place for Libyan troops

According to sources close to the Ivorian government, the ceasefire agreement between Mali and Burkina Faso proposed by the seven member states of ANAD an agreement which makes no provision for the presence of Libyan troops within the observer team - is the only valid agreement.

According to the same source, the ceasefire agreement proposed by Libya and Nigeria, which includes the presence of Libyan troops, and which was accepted by Burkina Faso, is not valid. Observers noted that although two rival the ANAD extra- ordinary council of ministers seemed to have succeeded in making the two warring nations accept its proposals thus making the agreements existed, Nigeria-Libya agreement null and void


PNDC must abolish firing squad

Ghana, Rt. Rev. I.H. Frempong, has appealed to the PNDC to abolish death by firing squad and capital punishment.

Delivering his moderatorial address at the 56th Synod of the Presbyterian Church of Ghana at Sunyani, Rev. Frempong observed that as "Christians we believe that life is God's property and He is the only one who has the right to take it back". He said that while the Presbyterian Church supports the Government and would continue to live in fraternity with it they are appalled by the rate of punishment by firing squad to coup plotters and robbers.

Moderator Frempong said that death by firing squad and for that matter capital punishment, does not redeem the person. He however agreed that as much as government has every right to protect and safeguard its machinery against saboteurs, subvertionists and dissidents, it must be magnanimous enough to temper justice with mercy.

The Libyan "invasion"

The aftermath of Col. Gaddafis' visit to Ghana continues to reverberate with public anger and complaints over the unruly behaviour of the multitude of Libyan security personnel who accompanied their leader.

The local papers, for instance, have carried reports expressing disgust at what has been appropriately described as the invasion of Accra by the Libyan security personnel.

For several days, prior to Col. Gaddafi's arrival, the city's two leading state hotels --- Continental and Ambassador were cleared of other residents to make room for the Libyans. Shops, boutiques and every other form of commercial activity along the arcades of the two hotels were brought to a halt for as long as the visit lasted.

On the day of the Libyan leader's visit to the University of Ghana, Legon, the road from Accra to the University which serves as the only outlet from the nation's capital to many other towns, was sealed off for many hours thereby inconveniencing many travellers.

Along the streets of Accra, Libyan troops men and women alike were seen ordering and pushing pedestrians as their leader drove past in an open car with Flight-Lt. Rawlings, Chairman of the PNDC, by his side.

The Colonel's three day visit was adjudged a success in official circles, but there is no doubt that public anger over the behaviour of the Libyan security personnel will persist for a long time.

Meanwhile, official statements have claimed that a meeting between the Ghana Ministry of Interior and the Secretary of the Libyan People's Bureau has reviewed matters arising from the visit and established guidelines to adhere to when planning state visits to each other's country.

Cocoa farmers give ultimatum

A report in the Weekly Spectator says that about 800 cocoa farmers in Kaase-Sefwi District in the Western Region have given the Ghana Cocoa Board (COCOBOD) a deadline The moderator of the Presbyterian Church of to effect full payment of their cocoa purchased since last October.

The ultimatum is an expression of the farmers' frustration at the irregular visits to the village by officials of the Social Security Bank (SSB), designated by the COCOBOD to make prompt payments for the "Akuafo Cheque" in the area.

The farmers, from Mangoase, Kaase, Adiembra, Tema Kramokrom, Besease and Ayaakwaa have had in their possession since October "Akuafo cheques" totalling about C50.5 million.

The decision of the farmers was contained in a resolution adopted at a general meeting at Kaase and sent on their behalf to the office of the Political Counsellor for the CDR's in Accra by Mr Emmanuel Gyau, Organizing Assistant for Mangoase Zonal CDR's. Mr Gyau said that since October the SSB officials had visited the villages only four times during which they made total payment of about C2 million.

Most of the farmers, he said, have had to resort to selling of their belongings to enable them to pay their farm-hands and meet other commitments..

Foreign Exchange application

The Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning has directed that with immediate effect all applications for foreign exchange to travel abroad should be made to the office of the Chief of Staff, PNDC, at least four weeks before the intended date of travel.

Government view on US/Libya relations

The government has commented on reports that the USA might be considering attacks on targets in Libya. A statement on radio Ghana said that while unequivocally condemning terrorist acts as a means of settling scores of any nature, the government condemned the use of threats of military retaliation against Libya.

The USA rejected sanctions as an effective means of ending apartheid in South Africa but apparently thought differently when it came to Libya, the statement noted.


Soviet cultural agreement

Mr Abdel Kader Fall, the Minister of Culture, and the Soviet Ambassador in Dakar, Yuriy Belskiy have signed a protocol agreement on cultural co-operation between the twocountries for 1986 and 1987.

According to the agreement, the Soviet Union will, during these two years, grant scholarships to Senegalese citizens for further studies and refresher courses. It also provides for the development of co-operation between the two countries in the fields of books, cinema, industry and sports.

Sentences in trial of secessionists

The state security court has sentenced 34 secessionists to terms of up to life imprison- ment for the violent 1983 demonstrations in Senegal's southern Casamance province that left 28 people dead. A total of 72 defendants in the trial, which opened in mid-November, were acquitted.

The court issued its most severe sentence, life imprisonment with hard labour, to pro- independence militant Cherifo Bassene, charged with sedition and harming Senegal's territorial integrity. Six defendants were sentenced to 15-year terms, 11 to 10-years, one to five years, eight to three years in jail and seven to two years.

The punishments were generally viewed as lenient in view of the public prosecutor's call for sentences ranging from six months to the death penalty. Twelve lawyers defending the accused had appealed for limited punishments to avoid inflaming separatist sentiment in Casamance.

About 300 people were detained following clashes with police on December 6 and 18, 1983, a total of 181 suspects were released and seven were reported to have died in detention. Throughout the trial, all the accused denied the charges brought against them. They charged that confessions they made were extracted under torture during preliminary investigations into the disturbances.


More civilian ministers

Head of State Col. Lansana Conte has reshuffled his Cabinet for the first time since last July's attempted coup, bringing in more civilians and naming a new Foreign Minister. He also set up four regional ministries and named four senior ministers to be attached to the Presidency.

The ruling Military Committee for National Recovery was reshuffled and cut in size from 20 to 17 members, after seven officers were dropped and only four named to replace them. The new 31-member Cabinet contains only 12 soldiers compared with 21 in the old one of 30 ministers and their deputies. The number of civilians was more than doubled, from nine to 19. The four ministries of state in the last government were abolished.

Outgoing Minister of State for Planning and Natural Resources, Cdr. Jean Traore, was named Foreign Minister to replace Capt. Facine Toure, who becomes one of the four resident regional ministers, in charge of forestry and based at Nzerekore. The other regional ministers will be h andling maritime affairs, Middle Guinea and Upper Guinea.

Jean-Claude Diallo moves from Deputy Minister in charge of Guineans abroad to be Minister to the Presidency in charge of Information and Culture.

Cdr. Mohammed Traore, outgoing Minister of Communications and Tourism, was named. Guinea's representative at the United Nations in New York.

The other three new ministers to the Presidency were Lt-Col. Sory Doumbouya, a former Finance Minister, Cdr, Alpha Oumar Diallo, former Deputy Minister for Livestock and Fishing, and Edouard Benjamin. They are to handle defence, interior and planning and aid affairs, respectively.

Among the new Ministers were Bassirou Barry (justice), Lamine Bolivogui (economy and finance), Ousmane Sylla (natural resources, energy and environment), Saliou Kombassa (education), and Pathe Diallo (health and social affairs).

Currency Exchange

The government has announced a 15 day currency exchange operation to replace the Syli by the Guinea Franc. During the operation, which started from January 6, all land and sea borders with the exception of Conakry and Kasmar ports would be closed. The operation was preceded by a presidential decree devaluing the Syli to just under one fifteenth of its former value and an announcement saying that Guinea was going to join the French franc zone.


Resumption of relations with Israel

Israel and Ivory Coast are resuming their diplomatic relations. This was decided by Prime Minister Shimon Peres and President Felix Houphouet Boigny in a secret meeting they held on December 18 in Geneva at the President's private residence.

In a news conference in Geneva, Foreign Ministry Director General David Kimche announced that the decision would initially be submitted to the governments of both countries for its approval.

Ivory Coast was the last African country: that severed relations with Israel 12 years ago. However, through this entire period Israel maintained an office at the Belgian Embassy in Abidjan. Israel maintains similar offices in eight countries in Africa.


Creation of two new government posts

President Omar Bongo of Gabon has carried out a minor reshuffle of his government, creating two new ministerial posts and bringing in a new Environment Minister.

The newly created posts were Minister of Immigration and Natural Disasters, given to former Environment Minister General Barthelemy Mbia, and Secretary of State to the Presidency for Research and Coordinator of Security Policy, which went to Samuel Mbaye. General Mbia was replaced as Environment Minister by Francois Owono Nuguema.


Prof. Akinyemi holds talks in London

Professor Bolaji Akinyemi, foreign minister who is on a visit to Britain, has held wide ranging talks with his British counterpart, Sir Geoffrey Howe.

During two hours of talks Professor. Akinyemi assured Nigeria's creditors of his country's intention to pay all "legitimate debts". He referred, however, to a £100 million claim against Nigeria by Johnson Mathey Bankers, part of which is claimed by Nigeria to be fraudulent.

The British Foreign Secretary praised President Babangida's efforts to revive Nigeria's economy which has been hit by falling oil prices and the cost of servicing its large foreign debt. He viewed Nigeria's debt servicing proposal contained in President Babangida's budget as "helpful as a foundation on which to build".

Sir Geoffrey praised the overall budgetary package as courageous, but said it was too early for Britain to relax its own credit restrictions on Nigeria.

Other bilateral issues discussed included the 14-year jail sentences imposed on two British engineers in Lagos, which Britain considers as too severe.

Professor Akinyemi in turn complained about the 12-year prison sentence imposed on Major Yusufu for his part in the kidnap attempt on Alhaji Umaru Dikko. Professor Akinyemi raised the possibility of the major's deportation from Britain but he was told that this could take place only after he had served his sentence.

Another debate on future political system

In his speech presenting the 1986 budget, President Babangida said that in order to establish "a viable and peaceful oriented poli- tical system devoid of disruption, his administration has decided to involve the people in the search for a solution to the problem of political instability which characterised the process of parliamentary democracy..."

He also announced that the Armed Forces Ruling Council had decided to foster a national debate on a future political system, which it hoped would concentrate on finding a "smooth transitional disengagement process for the military". Gen. Babangida said he hoped the debate would "break new ground providing opportunities for the dissemination of new ideas and concepts that are firmly rooted in our social and political experience".

He added that a political bureau would be established charged with the tasks of collating views of Nigerians on the political system; to deliberate on political problems referred to the President; and to evaluate contributions and make proposals to the government. The bureau would be in existence for the year up to December 1986. Gen. Babangida concluded by saying that social justice and the creation of equal opportunities were vital to Nigerian national life.

Economic objectives in budget speech

President Babangida has said that 1986 should be a year of economic reconstruction, social justice and self-reliance and that people should be ready to make further sacrifices.

Among the most important objectives outlined were the achievement of self-sufficiency

in food production and the creation of more job opportunities for the unemployed. Exports should be promoted, he said, and reliance on oil revenue reduced.

The President noted that major interest groups in the country had cooperated in the formulation of the budget. He said revenue for 1986 had been estimated at 15.6bn naira -- 13.1bn of this coming from standard oil and non-oil sectors. The President said that the special fund consisted of 900m naira from the petroleum sector, 500m from the economic rehabilitation and recovery fund and one billion from consolidated net import measures.

The projected foreign exchange budget for the coming year will be 9.482bn naira, compared with 8bn in 1985; 8.1bn of 1986's total will be derived from oil income and the remainder from non-oil Sources. Of the foreign exchange budget, 7% would be allocated to domestic production and 30% to foreign debt repayments compared to 44% in 1985.

President Babangida confirmed his government's intention of honouring external debts and readjusting the external value of the naira with a view to reducing the degree of over- valuation.

Ensure success of budget

Managing director of the Nigerian Bank for Commerce and Industry, Mr Gabriel Akuzeze, has said that the success of the 1986 budget would depend on the implementation of its provisions. Mr Akuzeze said in Lagos that the success of the 1986 budget would depend on the implementation of its provisions.

Mr Akuzeze said in Lagos that good budget speeches in Nigeria were not strange adding: We have listened to fairly good speeches in the past "but the ideas embodied in them were ruined during implementation.

He urged the government to entrust the implementation of the budget to men with the right professional or practical skills, the right orientation, loyalty and patriotism. Those who are prone to following the letter rather than the spirit of instructions should not be charged with translating the budget into projects, said Mr Akuzeze.

Names of coup plotters

Fourteen military officers involved in the plot to overthrow the Federal government included Maj-Gen. Mamman Vatsa, Brigadier Malami Nassarawa, Gp-Capt. David Ikpeme, Gp- Capt. Salaudeen Latinwo, and Lt-Col. Chris Oche, Lt-Col. Mike Iyorshe, Lt-Col. Musa Bitiyong, Lt-Col. Moses Effiong, and Lt- Col. Emmanuel Obeya. Others are Wg-Cdr. Adamu Sakaba, Wg-Cdr. Ben Ekele, Cdr. A. Ogwuji, Maj. Daniel Bamidele.

The Minister of Information and Culture, Lt-Col. Anthony Ukpo, told newsmen in Lagos that investigations so far had confirmed the involvement of the 14 officers in the abortive coup plot.

The Minister of Defence and Chairman of the Joint Chief of Staff, Maj-Gen. Domkat Bali, announced two weeks ago that a coup plot had been uncovered and that many officers had been arrested.

Coup plotters 'killed in air crash'

A group of Nigerian officers accused of in- volvement in an unsuccessful coup were killed in a plane crash on New Year's Eve, the government has announced. A spokesman for the President, General. Ibrahim Babangida, said the plane, a presidential jet, crashed while bringing the accused to Lagos from the central Nigerian town of Makurdi.

The military rulers, who seized power themselves only last August, announced in December that they had foiled a plot by disaffected officers. Fourteen plotters have been named, including several from an Air Force base at Makurdi.

The presidential spokesman said that seven or eight people were killed in the plane crash, but their names would not be announced until their families had been told. He gave no further details but the News Agency of Nigeria pointed out. reported that a Hawker Siddeley HS125 of the presidential fleet had crashed at Kaduna in Northern Nigeria.

Presidential pardon for two journalists

The two Guardian journalists, Mr Tunde Thompson and Nduka Irabor, who were jailed under the defunct Decree 4, have been granted full and unconditional pardon by President Ibrahim Babangida. This was announced in Lagos by the Chief Press Secretary to the President, Chief Duro Onabule who appealed to journalists not to do anything that will make Nigerians crave for a reintroduction of the obnoxious decree.

He also announced that the maltreatment of two journalists at Murtala Muhammed airport on Friday, January 3, had greatly embarrassed President Babangida. The President, he said, has called for all facts related to the incidents. The two journalists, Alhaji Fatai Olubado of the Punch, and Mike Bangboweh of the Sketch, were alleged to have been beaten up by security men while carrying out their lawful duties.

Review of cases of tribunal convicts

The judicial tribunal inquiry for the review of cases of persons convicted by the Special Military Tribunal has begun public sittings at the National Assembly complex, Tafawa Balewa Square, Lagos. The panel, which is headed by Mr Justice Mohammed Bello, will sit for five weeks in the first instance.

Cases listed for hearing include those of Prof. D.A. Odenikpe, Dr Oladewa, Prof. Ambrose Ali, Chief Bisi Onabanjo, Mr Solomon Lar, Chief Melford Okilo, Olawale Edwards, and Chief Folowonsho.


Amnesty team refused entry

Airport police in Togo have barred a group from Amnesty International from entering the country. Members of the group had told the police that they were visiting the country to "investigate matters of concern" to the human rights organisation. The group reportedly produced a letter from the Togolese Minister Delegate to the Presidency, but officials said that Amnesty had been asked to delay the visit.

Message to Amnesty International

Findings of the national commission of inquiry into respect for human rights in Togolese prisons will be made public and will enable international opinion to judge. This was stated by the Justice Minister Ayite Mawuko Ajavon, in a message to the secretary general of Amnesty International. The findings of the pan-African commission of experts, made up of jurists, will also be made public, Mr Ajavon

It is recalled that Amnesty International, which last year denounced cases of torture in Togolese jails, had requested the Togolese authorities to make public the findings of the government inquiry ordered by President Gnassingbe-eyadema. The Togolese Minister added in his message that it was not advisable that, after three commissions had earlier visited Togo, an Amnesty International delegation should come before the forthcoming opening of the trial of the persons arrested last September.

Burkina Faso Minister's visit

President Eyadema has received a Burkinabe governmental delegation led by Mamadou Toure, that country's Minister of Commerce and People's Supplies. Afterwards, Mr Toure told newsmen that he had brought a message from President Thomas Sankara to President Eyadema which had referred to the good- neighbourly relations existing between Burkina Faso and Togo.

Mr Toure said his visit to Togo was in order to thank President Eyadema for his efforts since 1974 to bring about a peaceful settlement to the conflict between Burkina Faso and Mali. On relations between Mali and Burkina Faso, Mr Toure said that Burkina Faso did not intend to wage a war against Mali because both countries were facing the same problems, the same enemies and the same objectives.

Unfortunately, the conflict broke out and each country was compelled to defend the integrity of its territory. President Eyadema was aware of these facts and understood the problem well, Mr Toure added.

Rawlings and Gaddafi on cover of Talking Drums magazine, 1986-01-13 - Ghana stands by Libya in US dispute - Doe pledges reconciliation